Total productive maintenance is practical technique aimed at maximizing the effectiveness of facility that we use within our organization .Total productive maintenance establishes a system of productive maintenance, covering the entire life cycle of equipment, covers all department, involves participation of all employees from top to bottom and promotes small group autonomous activities.
The principle of Total productive maintenance, its main elements, scope of application, the tangible benefits and lastly the overall business implication of Total productive maintenance are discussed.
Maintenance has a far greater impact on corporate profitability than most managers are willing to consider, much less admit .And, as the competitive environment in the world continues to increase the pace, companies are looking for new strategies to save on costs, develop employees to face future challenges and bring about a new culture at work place. This has become imperative to stay in business and have an edge over the competition. In this situation, a number of strategies like Total Quality Management, Kaizen, quality circles, ISO certification, six sigma and Total productive Maintenance are available and it is the management choice to selectively implement these in their workplace.
WHAT IS TPM
Seiichi Nakajima (1988) has defined TPM as an innovative approach to maintenance that optimizes equipment effectiveness, eliminates breakdowns, and promotes autonomous maintenance by operators through day-to-day activities involving the total work force. Thus, TPM is not a specific maintenance policy, it is a culture, a philosophy and a new attitude towards maintenance. The salient features of TPM is the involvement of operators in carrying out autonomous maintenance by participating in cleaning, lubrication, minor repair, adjustments etc. The benefits of TPM can be very tangible. There are organizations, which through implementation of TPM have been able to increase the production volume by 50%. Reduce down time by 27% and rate of defective products by 80%. In addition to tangible benefits, TPM also various intangible benefits such as fostering of teamwork, increase morale, safety and nurturing the work force increased intellectual capabilities having the potential of meeting todayâ„¢s level of competition and challenges.
EVOLUTION OF TPM
TPM descends from Japan and came into existence in the seventies. After Dr W Edward Deming made an impact in Japan through his teaching of quality, Japanese organization felt a need for autonomous maintenance and small group activities to support the quality movement. Today thousands of organizations all over the world are implementing TPM and about 100organisations are now doing it in India.
Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a proven strategy for medium to large industries to get superior business results and develop people skills to take on future business Challenges. Unlike ISO certification process, in TPM, focus is on maintaining the equipment and process in perfect condition- to get best quality products and involve all employees in Collectively carrying out loss elimination, using analytical problem solving tools. The fundamental belief is that if the equipment is maintained well and setting is done by a conscious, skilled operator, once can get the best quality product. The whole concept of TPM is built around this belief and hence the name total productive maintenance. However, this concept can be applied to places other than plant and equipment and instead we could name Total productive Management rather than just maintenance.
TPM MASTER PLAN
There are different phases in implementation of TPM. The first one being, the preparation phase or also called the ` Phase Zeroâ„¢. This is a very important period of time for aligning everybody for the program and also, do some preliminary mock-ups are also called Leadership model work. Once having convinced about the benefits and modalities, the leadership will make a master plan for implementation and allocate resources. This key point is a milestone and is called Kick off.
Then on, there are generally four phases for the implementation of TPM. There are key measures established for the results and pillar step activities start as per the master plan to achieve the goals established for each phase. The master plan is a great piece of work, which guides smoothly all activities and is fixed for a period of three to five years. This does not mean that it is rigid. It is dynamic and at the same time firm on objectives. The maximum activities are done in the first year, background and then they lead these pillar activities.
How do we achieve a good organization structure for implementing TPM without disturbing the normal organization structure and at the same time, identify leadership for TPM implementation, is the question.
The fundamental principle of TPM is to encourage autonomous maintenance and the best upkeep of the plant and equipment. Autonomous maintenance canâ„¢t be achieved without the support of skills training or best quality maintenance shop or leadership, in terms of organizing and providing budgetary support. Superior results canâ„¢t be achieved with out the support of the quality analysis and superior new equipment development .The also need a lot of support from administrative and support functions. A lot of documentation work is essential for standardization and re-application. This is why a number of pillars are created supporting TPM.
The following pillar structure is recommended to get full benefit of TPM implementation.
1. Autonomous maintenance
2. Progressive maintenance
3. Focused improvement
4. Training and education
5. Early equipment management
6. Quality maintenance
7. Administrative & support
8. Health, safety and environment
Besides these eight pillars, TPM will need Strong support of leadership and organization. These are like 8 pillars in a building structure that support the whole TPM implementation. These are bodies of knowledge of faculty, created to support the main objective of achieving zero defect and 100 per cent employee involvement These pillars are complimenting each other and there are no conflicts. Each pillar implementation is step-by-step process and those steps are clearly laid out in the process diagram for each pillar.
A master plan helps the plant to understand the contribution of each pillar actively and when which has to be energized. There is lot of interaction or what we call Ëœgive and takeâ„¢ between these pillars .Since it is difficult for one person to have all the knowledge of the all pillars , key people are generally trained in different pillars as per their interest and the journey and at different stages of implementation . The number shown against each item is average level of benefit achieved by TPM plants. In larger plants, this could amount to millions of dollars. Besides, there are innumerable indirect or intangible benefits.
Preventive, Predictive and Productive Maintenance. Here we will sum-up the most important aspects of preventive, predictive and productive maintenance:
1. Preventive Maintenance. Plant and machinery can be maintained in various ways. In order to increase company profitability and decrease production losses due to unprecedented system failure, mainly in large, complex systems , it is common to carry out preventive maintenance at pre-determined intervals. These types of policies are for example block replacement, age replacement and periodic replacement with minimum repair at failure.
2. Predictive Maintenance. If too short a preventive maintenance interval is selected, the machine will be overhauled unnecessarily, with consequent loss of production and possible human errors during inspection and re-assembly. Moreover, it should be noted that equipment seldom deteriorates in a few minutes, followed by a sudden failure. Generally, failure is the culmination of slow deterioration over a period of time. An acceptable compromise is to perform maintenance at irregular intervals, determined by the actual condition of the equipment. To establish these intervals, one must know the actual condition of the equipment at a given time, and its deterioration over a period of time. A procedure based on these premises is known as condition based maintenance or predictive maintenance. Thus, predictive maintenance is maintenance of equipment based on actual condition of the equipment. Condition monitoring is the monitoring of operational plant and analysis of data obtained to detect incipient fault and predict the residual life of safe operation. In the bath tub curve (Figure) depicting the life of an equipment, the three strategies co-exist. While in the infant mortality period it is mostly unscheduled breakdown, the strategy applied is Breakdown maintenance while during the useful life the Preventive maintenance is more useful. It is towards the beginning of the wear out period the Preventive maintenance becomes most beneficial since it tends to increase the useful life period of the equipment.
Bath Tub Curve
3. Productive Maintenance. Productive maintenance creatively combines preventive, predictive and maintainability improvement techniques with the principles of design to life cycle costing. Thus the main focus in productive maintenance is failure analysis and design modification, taking into consideration the cost benefit aspects.
BASIC TPM POLICY
The basic TPM policy is to optimize equipment effectiveness through TPM. The benefit of TPM is reflected in the form of improved quality, increased safety and reduced costs. Furthermore, studies have shown that the shared values of people working in TPM environment are very high. As a consequence of all these, TPM ensures overall improvement in company conditions. The major activities undertaken in a TPM organization are as follows:
Â¢ Increase productivity by reducing breakdowns. This also improves safety and delivery.
Â¢ Increase quality of performance of equipment and reduce losses by constantly monitoring equipment and process health.
Â¢ Reduce cost by conserving materials and energy.
Â¢ Increase existing equipment and process effectiveness and prolong useful life span through maintainability improvement activities.
Â¢ Educate employees to raise morale and keep pace with increasingly sophisticated equipment and technology.
COMPUTATION OF EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS
Equipment effectiveness is the product of three ratios, operating rate (availability), performance efficiency and rate of quality product. These three ratios are expressed as
Availability = Loading time - downtime
Performance efficiency = Theoretical cycle time X processed amount
Rate of quality product = Processed amount - defects
Effectiveness = Availability * performance efficiency x rate of quality product.
SIX BIG LOSSES AND SIX S
The objective of optimizing equipment effectiveness is achieved through identification and elimination of the root cause of six big losses viz., (i) downtime losses due to equipment failure, (ii) downtime losses resulting from set-up and adjustment, (iii) speed losses attributed to idling and minor stoppages of equipment/process due tomal-operation of transducers, choking of ducts etc., (iv)losses incurred owing to reduced speed due to discrepancies between designed and actual speed of equipment/process, (v) defect losses resulting from deficiencies in the process and (vi) defect losses due to reduced yield primarily during machine start-up to stabilization.
The success of TPM implementation is greatly influenced by the ability of the management to pursue the shop floor people about the benefit of TPM and how it can improve the overall work environment. Management has to initiate implementation of six S programme. In this context it is worth mentioning six Japanese words each starting with S viz., Seiri-organizaton, Seiton-tidiness, Seiso-purity, Seikestsu-cleanliness, Shitsuke-discipline and Shikkari-yarou-let us try hard. Understanding of the significance of six S and three applications in any given work place can show significant improvement. It is of paramount importance that the top management appreciates and encourages initiative, special effort and innovation.
ZERO BREAK-DOWN PROGRAMME
Nakajima (1988) suggests five measures to uncover the hidden defects and eliminate chronic losses. They are discussed below:
(i) Maintain basic equipment conditions: There are three factors involved in the basic equipment conditions. They are
(a) Cleaning. It means removing dust and contamination that cause friction, clogging, leaking, defective running, defective contacts in electrical switches, reduce precision etc. Cleaning means more than superficial cleaning. In the process of doing this, every nook and corner of the machine should be reached. There are possibilities of discovering many hidden defects such as cracks, loose nuts, loose connections, wear, etc. in doing so.
(b) Lubrication. Many equipment require proper lubrication for efficient functioning. Checking of proper oil level in oil tank, checking oil supply pipelines for clogging and connections for leaking are the basic lubricating requirements.
© Bolting. Loose bolting is a major cause of breakdowns. Besides, loose bolts lead to vibration which in turn makes the products defective apart from damaging other parts of the equipment.
(ii) Adhere to operating conditions. Running equipment at the prescribed operating conditions ensures operating conditions ensures optimum functioning. When operating conditions are ignored, it results in hidden defects. Therefore, having a standard operating conditions specified and adhering to the same go a long way in eliminating breakdowns.
(iii) Restore deterioration. Apart from restoring the parts directly involved in breakdown, it calls for restoration of deterioration in all other parts indirectly involved in the breakdown.
(iv) Correct design weakness. Often, of breakdowns is not possible because of problems caused by design weakness. These situations call for changes in equipment design.
(v) Improve operating and maintenance skills. Many breakdowns are caused by human errors. Non-adherence to the operating conditions and poor maintenance workmanship are often results of lark of operating and maintenance skills. Extensive training and education in these aspects not only raises the skill level, but also enhances the capability to analyze the causes of breakdowns and defects.
STEPS IN IMPLEMENTING TPM
The implementation of Total Productive Maintenance starts with active and continuous support of Top and Senior Management. There are ten basic stages, which have to be crossed to implement TPM. These ten stages are:
(i) Announce Top Managementâ„¢s decision to introduce TPM.
(ii) Launch educational campaign.
(iii) Create TPM promotion Organization.
(iv) Establish Basic TPM Policies and Goals.
(v) Formulate a Master Plan for TPM development.
(vi) Improve Equipment Effectiveness.
(vii) Establish Autonomous Maintenance Programme for Equipment operator.
SUPERIOR BUSINESS RESULTS
The plants, which implemented TPM, have not only achieved superior business results, but they are on a continuous improvement journey. There are some clear measures established for the measurement to make the results quite tangible. PQCDSM are the six such measures which have been widely accepted.
Â¢ P- Production volume, productivity (up 25-50 percent)
Â¢ Q- Product quality defects in PPM, market complaints
Â¢ C- Cost of manufacturing (down 10-25)
Â¢ D- Delivery reliability, perfect orders (100percent)
Â¢ S- Safety incidents or environmental incidents (Zero)
Â¢ M-Morale of people measured in different ways.
These are key result areas. Normally TPM plants assess where they are the beginning of where more money (up 10%) is needed in the budget. However, the money starts flowing in from the second year when small group activities start yielding results. The third year will be harvest time and then there wonâ„¢t be an end to the improvement journey.
KEY PRINCIPLES OF TPM
Some of the principles of TPM are
1. Healthy Hen and Healthy Egg.
2. Self Managed Maintenance.
3. Skilled and Conscious operator.
4. Team Work & Elimination of chronic problems
5. Gemba Gembustu.
6. TPM is religion, a way of life.
7. Not a project, it is a continuous Improvement journey.
There is a simple Japanese saying- Healthy Hen and Healthy Egg. That means if you need a good, healthy egg, you need to feed hen well and maintain it healthy. Similary.inorder to get a good quality product, you need to maintain and set the equipment well for the product specification. Second, the need for self managed maintenance is key. ËœI run it and you fix itâ„¢ concept has serious limitations and there is a need to switch over to autonomous maintenance the operators will have to be Trained to get the maintenance and operation skills, so that they understand the implication of the machine condition, setting and the relation to the product quality specification. Third, the new approach to success is team work. Employees work in teams to resolve chronic problems and key emphasis here is team work and taking the problems to zero and see to it that they do not recur. Gemba and Gembustu is another key principle. In Japanese, Gemba means the location and gembustu means place where the problem is and take a decision by feeling the problem is and take a by feeling the problem with their senses. The last principle here is that often TPM is considered to be a project or an initiative and having reached a particular stage of achievement in TPM, the resources are then diverted to other key projects. This is continuous improvement journey and TPM becomes a way of life. After this, there is no need for any other initiative. One needs to continue this journey with new learning
One needs to understand the TPM vision before getting on with the activities. The vision is twofoldÂ¦.
1. Zero defect or zero loss state
2. Total Employee involvement
Before staring any activity, the leadership needs to understand the vision carefully and once convinced, only then, they may start mobilizing the resources for implementation of TPM.Zero defects, can be achieved by focusing on right priorities and working hard to achieve it in those selected areas. This is a continuous improvement journey and not a project or a initiative. This does not mean that you need to have zero defects in everything. This is key for leadership to understand. Also ensure that defects does not creep into that areas where you have already achieved zero defects. Elimination of all defects or losses and ensure that they do not recur, is important.
The second part of the vision is 100 percent employee involvement. In organization, normally a select few people work on a key project .As against that, here, the concept of all employee involvement is brought in. this is not very difficult to achieve, since employees normally have great enthusiasm to get involved and contribute to the business
TPM is a practical and down to earth technique aimed at maximizing the effectiveness of facility that we use within our organization. The essence of TPM is team work, and at its very heart lies the motivation and encouragement of the people who work within the organization. Today thousands of organizations all over the world are implementing TPM and about hundred organizations is now doing it in India.
By having a complete re-look at the whole gamut of manufacturing activities encompassing design of the product, its specification, size and shape of material used for the products, application of value analysis and value engineering techniques, optimum utilization of resources including men, machines and materials, we will be able to achieve complete Total Productive Maintenance. In short, achieving the maximum result for every money spent.
Â¢ Chowdhary.C., Total Productive Maintenance; A culture that leads to success Udyog Pragati Journal of NITIE, July â€œ December 1995.
Â¢ Davis.R.K., Productivity Improvement through TPM, Prentice Hall of International(UK) Limited, 1995.
Â¢ Machinist Journal, September 2003
First of all I thank the almighty for providing me with the strength and courage to present the seminars.
I avail this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude towards
Dr. T.N. Sathyanesan, head of mechanical engineering department, for permitting me to conduct the seminars. I also at the outset thank and express my profound gratitude to my seminars guide Mr. Luckman Muhmood. and staff incharge Asst. Prof. Mrs. Jumailath Beevi. D., for their inspiring assistance, encouragement and useful guidance.
I am also indebted to all the teaching and non- teaching staff of the department of mechanical engineering for their cooperation and suggestions, which is the spirit behind this report. Last but not the least, I wish to express my sincere thanks to all my friends for their goodwill and constructive ideas.
AHAMED SHABEEL BAFAKYH
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. WHAT IS TPM 2
3. EVOLUTION OF TPM 3
4. TPM MASTER PLAN 4
5. TPM STRUCTURE 5
6. TPM MOVEMENT 7
7. BASIC TPM POLICY 9
8. COMPUTATION OF EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS 10
9. SIX BIG LOSSES AND SIX S 11
10. ZERO BREAK-DOWN PROGRAMME 12
11. STEPS IMPLEMENTING TPM 14
12. SUPERIOR BUSINESS RESULTS 15
13. KEY PRINCIPLES OF TPM 16
14. TPM VISION 18
15. CONCLUSION 19
16. REFERENCES 20