USB Power Injector
USB Power Injector is essentially a switch and a 5V regulator. The Vbus supply from USB socket CON1 turns on transistor Q1 which then turns on power Mosfet Q2. This then feeds a 6V DC regulated supply from an external plug pack to regulator REG1 which in turn supplies 5V to USB socket CON2. As with most such drives, it is powered directly from the USB port, so it doesnâ„¢t require an external plug pack supply.In fact, the device is powered from two USB ports, since one port is incapable of supplying sufficient current. Thatâ„¢s done using a special USB cable thatâ„¢s supplied with the drive. It has two connectors fitted to one end, forming what is basically a "Y" configuration (see photo).One connector is wired for both power and data while the other connector has just the power supply connections. In use, the two connectors are plugged into adjacent USB ports, so that power for the drive is simultaneously sourced from both ports. An external USB hard drive is usually powered by plugging two connectors at one end of a special USB cable into adjacent USB ports on the computer. This allows power to be sourced from both ports. According to the USB specification, USB ports are rated to supply up to 500mA at 5V DC, so two connected in parallel should be quite capable of powering a portable USB hard drive
USB Power Socket
Today, almost all computers contain logic blocks for implementing a USB port. A USB port, in practice, is capable of delivering more than 100 mA of continuous current at 5V to the peripherals that are connected to the bus. So a USB port can be used, without any trouble, for powering 5V DC operated tiny electronic gadgets. Nowadays, many handheld devices (for instance, portable reading lamps) utilise this facility of the USB port to recharge their built-in battery pack with the help of an internal circuitry. Usually 5V DC, 100mA current is required to satisfy the input power demand. Fig. 1 shows the circuit of a versatile USB power socket that safely converts the 12V battery voltage into stable 5V. This circuit makes it possible to power/ recharge any USB power-operated device, using in-dash board cigar lighter socket of your car. The DC supply available from the cigar lighter socket is fed to an adjustable, three-pin regulator LM317L (IC1). Capacitor C1 buffers any disorder in the input supply. Resistors R1 and R2 regulate the output of IC1 to steady 5V, which is available at the ‘A’ type female USB socket. Red LED1 indicates the output status and zener diode ZD1 acts as a protector against high voltage. Fig. 1: Circuit of USB power socket Assemble the circuit on a general- purpose PCB and enclose in a slim plastic cabinet along with the indicator and USB socket. While wiring the USB outlet, ensure correct polarity of the supply. For interconnection between the cigar plug pin and the device, use a long coil cord as shown in Fig. 2. Pin configuration of LM317L is shown in Fig. 3.