Over the past four decades the computer industry has experienced four generations of development, physically marked by the rapid changing of building blocks from relays and vacuum tubes (1940-1950s) to discrete diodes and transistors (1950-1960s), to small- and medium-scale integrated (SSI/MSI) circuits (1960-1970s), and to large- and very-large-scale integrated (LSI/VLSI) devices (1970s and beyond). Increases in device speed and reliability and reductions in hardware cost and physical size have greatly enhanced computer performance.
However, better devices are not the sole factor contributing to high performance. Ever since the stored-program concept of von Neumann, the computer has been recognized as more than just a hardware organization problem. A modern computer system is really a composite of such items as processors, memories, functional units, interconnection networks, compilers, operating systems, peripherals devices, communication channels, and database banks.
To design a powerful and cost-effective computer system and to devise efficient programs to solve a computational problem, one must understand the underlying hardware and software system structures and the computing algorithm to be implemented on the machine with some user-oriented programming languages. These disciplines constitute the technical scope of computer architecture. Computer architecture is really a system concept integrating hardware, software algorithms, and languages to perform large computations. A good computer architect should master all these disciplines
VLSI Design Styles
Basic Concepts in VLSI Physical Design Automation
VLSI Design Cycle
• Large number of devices
• Optimization requirements for high performance
• Time-to-market competition
1. System specification
2. Functional design
3. Logic design
4. Circuit design
5. Physical design
6. Design verification
8. Packaging, testing, and debugging
• Converts a circuit description into a geometric description.
– This description is used for fabrication of the chip.
• Basic steps in the physical design cycle:
2. Floorplanning and placement
n-channel Transistor Operation
n-channel Transistor Layout
p-channel MOS Transistor
MOS Transistor Behavior
Summary of VLSI Layers
General Design Rules
Types of Fabrication Errors
Width/Spacing Rules (MOSIS)
M2 Contact (Via)
CMOS Layout Example
Static CMOS Inverter
Static CMOS NAND Gate
Static CMOS NOR Gate
Static CMOS Design :: General Rule
Simple Static CMOS Design
Static CMOS Design Example
VLSI Design Styles
• Programmable Logic Devices
– Programmable Logic Device (PLD)
– Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)
– Gate Array
• Standard Cell (Semi-Custom Design)
• Full-Custom Design
Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)
• User / Field Programmability.
• Array of logic cells connected via routing channels.
• Different types of cells:
– Special I/O cells.
– Logic cells.
• Mainly lookup tables (LUT) with associated registers.
• Interconnection between cells:
– Using SRAM based switches.
– Using antifuse elements
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