Wardriving is searching for Wi-Fi wireless networks by moving vehicle. It involves using a car or truck and a Wi-Fi-equipped computer, such as a laptop or a PDA, to detect the networks. It was also known as 'WiLDing' (Wireless Lan Driving).
Many wardrivers use GPS devices to measure the location of the network find and log it on a website. For better range, antennas are built or bought, and vary from omnidirectional to highly directional. Software for wardriving is freely available on the Internet, notably, NetStumbler for Windows, Kismet for Linux, and KisMac for Macintosh.
Wardriving was named after wardialing because it also involves searching for computer systems with software that would use a phone modem to dial numbers sequentially and see which ones were connected to a fax machine or computer, or similar device.
Wardriving is searching for Wi-Fi wireless networks by moving vehicle. Wardriving was first developed by Pete Shipley in April 2001. It involves using a car or truck and a Wi-Fi-equipped computer, such as a laptop or a PDA, to detect the networks. Many wardrivers use GPS devices to measure the location of the network find and log it on a website. For better range, antennas are built or bought, and vary from omnidirectional to highly directional. Software for wardriving is freely available on the Internet, notably, NetStumbler for Windows, Kismet for Linux, and KisMac for Macintosh.
The gathering of statistics about wireless networks in a given area by listening for their publicly available broadcast beacons is War Driving. Wireless access points (APs) announce their presence at set intervals (usually every 100 milliseconds) by roadcasting a packet containing their service set identifier (SSID; basically, the user-defined name of the access point) and several other data items. A stumbling utility running on a portable computer of some sort (a laptop or PDA) listens for these broadcasts and records the data that the AP makes publicly available..
Wireless networks have become a way of life in the past two years. As more wireless networks are deployed, the need to secure them increases. The activity of driving around discovering wireless access points is called WarDriving. In order to successfully WarDrive, there are some tools, both hardware and software. WarDriving is a fun hobby that has the potential to make a difference in the overall security posture of wireless networking.
2. THE ORIGINS OF WARDRIVING
WarDriving is an activity that is misunderstood by many people.This applies to both the general public, and to the news media that has reported on WarDriving. Because the name "WarDriving'* has an ominous sound to it, many people associate WarDriving with a criminal activity.
2.1 WHAT'S IN A NAME
WarDriving is the act of moving around a specific area and mapping the population of wireless access points for statistical purposes.These statistics are then used to raise awareness of the security problems associated with these types of networks (typically wireless).The commonly accepted definition of WarDriving among those who are actually practitioners is that WarDriving is not exclusive of surveillance and research by automobile - WarDriving is accomplished by anyone moving around a certain area looking for data.This includes:walking, which is often referred to as WarWalking; flying, which is also referred to as WarFlying; bicycling, and so forth. WarDriving does not utilize the resources of any wireless access point or network that is discovered without prior authorization of the owner.
2.2 THE TERMINOLOGY HISTORY OF WARDRIVING
The term WarDriving comes from WarDialing, a term you may be familiar with being that it was introduced to the general public by Matthew Broderick's character,David Lightman, in the 1983 movie, WarGames. WarDialing is the practice of using a modem attached to a computer to dial an entire exchange of telephone numbers (often sequentiallyâ€for example, 555-1111, 555-1112, and so forth) to locate any computers with modems attached to them. Essentially,WarDriving employs the same concept, although it is updated to a more current technology: wireless networks. A WarDriver drives around an area,often after mapping a route out first, to determine all of the wireless access points in that area. Once these access points are discovered, a WarDriver uses a software program or Web site to map the results of his efforts. Based on these results, a statistical analysis is performed.This statistical analysis can be of one drive, one area, or a general overview of all wireless networks.The concept of driving around discovering wireless networks probably began the day after the first wireless access point was deployed. However,WarDriving became more well-known when the process was automated by Peter Shipley, a computer security consultant in Berkeley, California. During the fall of 2000,Shipley conducted an 18-month survey of wireless networks in Berkeley,California and reported his results at the annual DefCon hacker conference in July of 2001.This presentation, designed to raise awareness of the insecurity of wireless networks that were deployed at that time, laid the groundwork for the "true"WarDriver.
2.3 WARDRIVING MISCONCEPTIONS
These days, you might hear people confuse the terminology WarDriver and Hacker. As you probably know, the term hacker was originally used to describe a person that was able to modify a computer (often in a way unintended by its manufacturer) to suit his or her own purposes. However, over time, owing to the confusion of the masses and consistent media abuse, the term hacker is now commonly used to describe a criminal; someone that accesses a computer or network without the authorization of the owner. The same situation can be applied to the term WarDriver. WarDriver has been misused to describe someone that accesses wireless networks without authorization from the owner. An individual that accesses a computer system, wired or wireless, without authorization is a criminal. Criminality has nothing to do with either hacking or WarDriving. The news media, in an effort to generate ratings and increase viewership, has sensationalized WarDriving. Almost every local television news outlet has done a story on "wireless hackers armed with laptops" or "drive-by hackers" that are reading your e-mail or using your wireless network to surf the Web. These stories are geared to propagate Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD). FUD stories usually take a small risk, and attempt to elevate the seriousness of the situation in the minds of their audience. Stories that prey on fear are good for ratings, but don't always depict an activity accurately. An unfortunate side effect of these stories has been that the reporters invariably ask the "WarDriver" to gather information that is being transmitted across a wireless network so that the "victim" can be shown their personal information
that was collected. Again, this has nothing to do with WarDriving and while a case can be made that this activity (known as sniffing) in and of itself is not illegal, it is at a minimum unethical and is not a practice that WarDrivers engage in. These stories also tend to focus on gimmicky aspects of WarDriving such as the directional antenna that can be made using a Pringles can. While a functional antenna can be made from Pringles cans, coffee cans, soup cans, or pretty much anything cylindrical and hollow, the reality is that very few (if any) WarDrivers actually use these for WarDriving. Many of them have made these antennas in an attempt to both verify the original concept and improve upon it in some instances.
s from the Unctcrground,..
Warchalking Is a Myth
Figure 1.2 The Closed Mode
Figure 1.2 indicates a closed node. One that is not open for public use. The SSID or network name is chalked above the symbol and nothing is chalked below the symbol...
In 2002. the news media latched onto something called warchalking. Warchalking is the act of making chalk marks on buildings or sidewalks to denote the presence and availability of wireless networks. Playing off of the practice of hobos during the Great Depression who would mark homes or areas to communicate information about the area to other hobos, warchalkers use a series of symbols to alert others as to what type of wireless network they will find in that area. Three primary symÃ‚Â¬bols used by warchalkers are illustrated in the following figures. Figure 1.1 indicates an open node, or one in which WEP encryption is not utiÃ‚Â¬lized and individuals are encouraged to use. The Service Set Identifier (SSID) ot network name is chalked above the symbol and the available bandwidth speed is chalked below the symbol.
Figure 1.3 The WEF Node
The symbol in Figure 13 indicates a node with WEP encryption enabled. This should be viewed as an unequivocal stop sign. The SSID and contact information to arrange for authorized access are chalked above the symbol and the available bandwidth is chalked below the symbol. Aside from hot spots such as Starbucks, there have been very few actual sightings of war chalked wireless networks. Despite the media hype surÃ‚Â¬rounding warchalking, it is generally viewed as a silly activity by WarDrivers. A recent poll on the NetStumbler forums (https://for.unis.net-stumbler.com) was unable to find even one person that had actually chalked an access point. The results of the survey can be seen in Figure 1.4. More information on the NetStumbler Forums and other online WarDriving Communities is presented in Chapter 8 of this book.
3. THE TRUTH ABOUT WARDRIVING
The reality of WarDriving is simple. Computer security professionals, hobbyists, and others are generally interested in providing information to the public about security vulnerabilities that are present with "out of the box" configurations of wireless access points. Wireless access points that can be purchased at a local electronics or computer store are not geared toward security. They are designed so that a person with little or no understanding of networking can purchase a wireless access point, and with little or no outside help, set it up and begin using it.
Computers have become a staple of everyday life. Technology that makes using computers easier and more fun needs to be available to everyone. Companies such as Linksys and D-Link have been very successful at making these new technologies easy for end users to set up and begin using. To do otherwise would alienate a large part of their target market.
The Legality Of Wardriving
According to the FBI, it is not illegal to scan access points, but once a theft of service,denial of service, or theft of information occurs, then it becomes a federal violation. While this is good, general information, any questions about the legality of a specific act in the United States should be posed directly to either the local FBI field office, a cyber crime attorney, or the U.S. Attorney's office. This information only applies to the United States. WarDrivers are encouraged to investigate the local laws where they live to ensure that they aren't inadvertently violating the law. Understanding the distinction between "scanning" or identifying wireless access points and actually using the access point is understanding the difference between WarDriving, a legal activity, and theft, an obviously illegal activity.
4. TOOLS OF THE TRADE OR "WHAT DO I NEED"
This section will introduce you to all of the tools that are required in order to successfully WarDrive.There are several different configurations that can be effectively used for WarDriving, including:
1. Getting the hardware
2. Choosing a wireless network card
3. Deciding on an external antenna
4. Connecting your antenna to your wireless NIC
4.1 GETTING THE HARDWARE
The following sections discuss potential equipment acquisitions and common configurations for each. Getting the Hardware You will need some form of hardware to use with your WarDriving equipment. There are two primary setups that WarDrivers utilize:
> The Laptop Setup
> The PDA Setup
4.1.1 The Laptop Setup
The most commonly used WarDriving setup utilizes a laptop computer.To WarDrive with a laptop, you need several pieces of hardware and at least one WarDriving software program.A successful laptop WarDriving setup includes:
Â¢ A laptop computer
Â¢ A wireless NIC Card
Â¢ An external antenna
Â¢ A pigtail to connect the external antenna to the wireless NIC
Â¢ A handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit
Â¢ A GPS data cable
Â¢ A WarDriving software program
Â¢ A cigarette lighter or AC adapter power inverter
Because most of the commonly used WarDriving software is not resource intensive, the laptop can be an older model. If you decide to use a laptop computer to WarDrive, you need to determine the WarDriving software you plan to use as well. For instance, if you do not feel comfortable with the Linux operating system, you will have to rely on tools that are supported in a Microsoft Windows environment. Because NetStumbler only works in Windows environments (and Kismet only runs on Linux), your choice of software is limited. A typical laptop WarDriving setup is shown in Figure I.
Figure 1: A Typical Laptop Computer WarDriving Setup
4.1.2 The Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Setup
PDAs are the perfect accessory for the WarDriver because they are highly portable.The Compaq iPAQ (see Figure 2), or any number of other PDAs that utilize the ARM, MIPS, or SH3 processor can be utilized with common WarDriving software packages. See Table I.
As with the laptop setup, the PDA setup requires additional equipment in order to be successful:
Â¢ A PDA with a data cable
Â¢ A wireless NIC Card
Â¢ An external antenna
Â¢ A pigtail to connect the external antenna to the wireless NIC
Â¢ A handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit
Â¢ A GPS data cable
Â¢ A null modem connector
Â¢ A WarDriving software program
Similar to the laptop configuration, the software package you choose will affect your choice of PDA. MiniStumbler, the PDA version of NetStumbler, works on PDAs that utilize the Microsoft Pocket PC operating system.The HP/Compaq iPAQ is one of the more popular PDAs among WarDrivers that prefer MiniStumbler. WarDrivers that prefer to use a PDA port of Kismet are likely to choose the Sharp Zaurus since it runs a PDA version of Linux.There are also Kismet packages that have specifically been designed for use on the Zaurus. The different software packages used for War Driving are:-Kismet
Kismet is an 802.11 layer2 wireless network detector, sniffer, and intrusion detection system. Kismet will work with any wireless card which support raw monitoring (rfmon) mode, and can sniff 802.1 lb, 802.1 la, and 802.1 lg traffic. Kismet is fully passive and undetectable when in operation. Kismet automatically tracks all networks in range and is able to detect (or infer) hidden networks, attack attempts, find rogue accesspoints, and find unauthorized users.
War Driving MiniStumbler
Mini Stumbler is a tool for Windows CE that allows you to detect Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) using 802.1 lb, 802.1 la and 802.1 lg. It has many uses:
Â¢ Verify that your network is set up the way you intended.
Â¢ Find locations with poor coverage in your WLAN.
Â¢ Detect other networks that may be causing interference on your network.
Â¢ Detect unauthorized "rogue" access points in your workplace.
Â¢ Help aim directional antennas for long-haul WLAN links.
Â¢ Use it recreationally for WarDriving. Operating System: Windows CE.
NetStumbler is a tool for Windows that facilitates detection of Wireless LANs using the 802.1 lb, 802.1 la and 802.1 lg WLAN standards. The program is commonly used for:
Â¢ Verifying network configurations.
Â¢ Finding locations with poor coverage in one's WLAN.
Â¢ Detecting causes of wireless interference.
Â¢ Detecting unauthorized ("rogue") access points.
Â¢ Aiming directional antennas for long-haul WLAN links.
4.2 CHOOSING A WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD
Most of the wireless networks that are currently deployed are 802.11b networks. You will find more access points if you use an 802.1 lb NIC. 802.1 lg access points, which transfer data at nearly five times the speed of 802.11b (54 MBps as opposed to 11 MBps) are gaining popularity and it is likely that an 802.1 lg card will soon supplant an 802.1 lb card as the favorite of WarDrivers. In addition to increased speed, the 802.1 lg standard supports WiFi Protected Access (WPA) encryption. Once effectively deployed,WPA will help to improve the overall security posture of wireless
networks. Some 802.1 la cards are currently supported by WarDriving software under certain conditions. As a general rule, 802.1 la (or any 802.1 la/b/g combo) cards are not recommended for WarDriving. This is because 802.1 la was broken into three distinct frequency ranges: Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UN1I)1, UNII2, and UNII3. Under Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations, UN1I1 cannot have removable antennas. Although UNII2 and UNII3 are allowed to have removable antennas, most 802.1 la cards utilize both UNII1 and UNII2.Because UNI 11 is utilized, removable antennas are not an option for these cards in the United States.
When Kismet and NetStumbler were first introduced, there were two primary chipsets available on wireless NICs: the Hermes chipset and the Prism2 chipset. Although there are many other chipsets available now, most WarDriving software is designed for use with one of these two chipsets. As a general rule NetStumbler works with cards based on the Hermes chipset. Kismet, on the other hand, is designed for use with cards based on the Prism2 chipset.This is not a hard and fast rule since some Prism2 cards will work under NetStumbler in certain configurations. Also, with appropriate Linux kernel modifications, Hermes cards can be used with Kismet.
Types Of Wireless NICs.
In order to WarDrive, you will need a wireless NIC. Before purchasing a wireless card, you should determine the software and configuration you plan to use. NetStumbler offers the easiest configuration for cards based on the Hermes chipset (for example, ORiNOCO cards). In order to maximize your results, you will want a card that has an external antenna connector (Figure 3.).This will allow you to extend the range of your card by attaching a stronger antenna to your WarDriving setup.
Many WarDrivers prefer the ORiNOCO Gold 802.1 lb card produced by Agere or Lucent (see Figure 4.) because it is compatible with both Kismet and NetStumbler and because it also has an external antenna connector.This card is now produced by Proxim and no longer uses the Hermes chipset, nor does it have an external antenna connector.The Hermes-based card is still available; however, it is now marketed as the "ORiNOCO Gold Classic."
Figure 4:The ORiNOCO Gold Card
This card is outstanding for both everyday use and for WarDriving. Also, as previously noted, this card can be configured for use in both NetStumbler and Kismet.This is particularly useful when using a laptop computer that is configured to dual boot both Linux and Windows. This allows you to utilize the wireless NIC in both operating systems as well as most common WarDriving software in both environments without having to change hardware.
4.3 DECIDING ON AN EXTERNAL ANTENNAS
In order to maximize the results of a WarDrive, an external antenna should be used. An antenna is a device for radiating or receiving radio waves. Most wireless network cards have a low power antenna built in to them. An external antenna will increase the range of the radio signal detected by the wireless network card. Many different types of antennas can be used with wireless NICs: parabolic antennas, directional antennas, and omni-directional antennas are just a few. Because of their size, parabolic antennas (see Figure 5.) are not overly practical antennas for WarDriving.
Figure 5: A Parabolic Antenna Isn't Good for WarDriving
Many WarDrivers use either an external omni-directional antenna or an external directional antenna in conjunction with their wireless network card. Both of these are available in many different sizes and signal strengths. There are many factors that need to be considered when determining what type of antenna to use.
There are some basic terms you should understand when determining what type of antenna should be used while WarDriving:
o Decibel (dB): A decibel is the unit of measure for power ratios describing loss or gain, normally expressed in watts. A decibel is not an absolute valueâ€it is the measurement of power gained or lost between two communicating devices.These units are usually given in terms of the logarithm to Base 10 of a ratio.
o dBi value: This is the ratio of the gain of an antenna as compared to an isotropic antenna.The greater the dBi value, the higher the gain. If the gain is high, the angle of coverage will be more acute.
o Isotropic antenna: An isotropic antenna is a theoretical construct that describes an antenna that will radiate its signal 360 degrees to cover the area in a perfect sphere. It is used as a basis by which to describe the gain of a real antenna.
o Line of sight: Line of sight is an unobstructed straight line between two transmitting devices. You will most often see the need for a line of sight path for long-range directional radio transmissions. Due to the curvature of the earth, the maximum line of sight for devices not mounted on towers is six miles (9.65 km).
4.3.1 OMNIDIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS
As the name indicates, omni-directional antennas "see" in all directions at once.An omni-directional antenna is best used when driving alone, and can be purchased for $50.00 and up depending on the gain and mounting mechanism. One common misconception is that the stronger the gain of the antenna, the better your WarDriving results will be.This is not entirely true, however.The important thing to understand from the preceding definition of dBi value is the last sentence: "If the gain is high, the angle of coverage will be more acute." Because the signal of an omniÃ‚Â¬directional antenna is shaped roughly like a donut, the higher the gain, the "shorter" the donut.The opposite is true as well.A smaller gain antenna has a "taller" donut. Figure 6. shows the signal donut of a 5 dBi gain omni-directional antenna compared to that of an 8 dBi gain omni-directional antenna.The signal donut of the 5 dBi is taller than the signal donut of an 8 dBi gain omni-directional antenna. What this means is that although it has a "weaker" signal, as indicated in the overhead view, a 5 dBi gain omniÃ‚Â¬directional antenna is likely to provide better results in a neighborhood with tall buildings such as an urban downtown area. Also, because these antennas rely on line-of-sight communication, a 5 dBi gain antenna works very well in residential areas where homes and other buildings provide obstructions between your antenna and any wireless access points.
/ _^ \
( (" N \
~ ^ Si sic Wcw*
Figure 6 : Signal Donut Comparison of 5 dBi and 8 dBi gain
Figure 7: An 8 dBi Gain Qmni-Directional Antenna
Another advantage of the 5 dBi gain antenna is that many are available with a magnetic base.This means that you can simply put it on the roof of your car and the magnet will hold it in place while driving; no additional mounting brackets are required.
Figure 8: A 5 dBi Gain Magnetic Mount Qmni-Directional Antenna
An 8 dBi gain (see Figure 7.), or higher, antenna is excellent for use on longer drives in open areas with few obstructions such as interstate highways. These antennas are very effective when businesses or residences are farther away from your vehicle and there is a large field or roadway between you and any potential access points. It is more difficult to find magnetic mounted antennas that are stronger than 5 dBi gain (see Figure 8.).These antennas usually require some form of external mounting bracket.
Regardless of the dBi gain antenna you use, an omni-directional antenna is usually going to be the best choice for WarDriving. This is primarily because it radiates its signal in all directions at once. Because these antennas do rely on lineof-sight communications, it is not necessary to continually sweep the antenna in the direction of potential access points in order to discover them.There are, however, situations where a directional antenna is more effective.
4.3.2 DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS
Directional antennas also rely on line of sight to transmit; however, unlike omnidirectional antennas, they can only "see" in the direction they are pointed. Directional antennas are excellent for use in areas with tall buildings. From a stationary position near the base of the building, you can sweep the antenna up and down the length of the building and detect access points that would have been missed with an omni-directional antenna. Additionally, directional antennas can have a much stronger dBi gain in a shorter package. For example, a 14.5 dBi gain directional antenna, as shown in Figure 9., is just slightly longer than the 8 dBi gain omni-directional antenna shown in Figure 10., but has a significantly stronger dBi gain.
Figure 9: A 14.5 dBi Gain Directional Antenna
There are several types of directional antennas such as yagis, parabolic grids, and so forth. However, the most commonly used antenna is the yagi antenna since these can be purchased relatively inexpensively and provide a large dBi gain.
44 CONNECTING YOUR ANTENNA TO YOUR WIRELESS NIC
In order to connect your antenna to the external antenna connector on your wireless NJC you will need the appropriate pigtail cable (see Figure 10.). Most antennas have an N-Type connector but the wireless NIC usually has a proprietary connector.
When you purchase your card you should verify with either the retailer or the card manufacturer what type of external antenna connector is built into the card.
Figure 10: Pigtail for Use with ORiNOCO Cards and N-Type Barrel
Once you have identified the type of external connector your card has, you will need to purchase a pigtail that has both the correct connection for your card as well as the correct N-Type connector. Some antennas ship with male N-Type connectors and others ship with female N-Type connectors. Because the pigtails are expensive (around $30) you should verify whether your antenna has a male or female connector, and purchase the opposite connection on your pigtail. For instance, if you purchase a 5 dBi magnetic mount omni-directional antenna with a female N-Type connector for use with your ORiNOCO Gold card, you will need a pigtail that has a Lucent proprietary connector as well as a male N-Type connector. This will allow you to successfully connect your antenna to your wireless NICs external antenna connector. Since you may have multiple antennas with both male and female N-Type connectors, it might also be a good idea to purchase barrel connectors that will allow you to attach your pigtail to either a male or female N-Type Connector.
5. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)
Most WarDrivers want to map the results of their drives.To do this, a portable GPS capable of National Marine Electronics Output (NMEA) is required. Some WarDriving software supports other proprietary formats (such as Garmin).For instance, NetStumbler supports the Garmin format.The Gannin format "reports" the current location to your software every second, whereas NMEA only reports the location once every two seconds. Using the Garmin format increases the accuracy of the access-point locations. Unfortunately, Kismet (and other WarDriving software) only supports NMEA output. By purchasing a GPS capable of NMEA output, there will be flexibility to switch between WarDriving software without requiring additional hardware.
Figure 11: The Garmin eTrex Handheld GPS
When choosing a GPS, several factors should be considered. As mentioned earlier, making sure it is capable of NMEA output is a must. It is also important to find out which accessories come with the GPS unit. For instance, there are several models in the Garmin eTrex line of handheld GPSs.The base model, simply called the eTrex (see Figure 11.) retails for about $120.This unit has all of the functionality required for a WarDriver and is capable of NMEA output. When comparing this to the eTrex Venture, which retails for $150, the initial indication would be to go with the cheaper model. However, once the accessories included with these two are looked into, you will notice that the Venture comes with the PC Interface cable, whereas the base model doesn't. Because this cable costs about $50, the Venture is a better purchase. In addition to the PC Interface cable, you get additional functionality with the Venture that, while not required for WarDriving, can be fun to play with, all for $20 less.
Determine if your laptop computer has a serial port. Most PC Interface cables have a serial interface. If laptop doesn't have a serial interface, purchase a serial to Universal Serial Bus (USB) cable for use with GPS. In order to use GPS with a PDA, you will need a null modem connector and the proper connection cables for PDA. The proper configuration for this setup is PDA | Proprietary connector/serial conversion cable | Null Modem Connector | GPS PC Interface cable.This setup is depicted in Figure 12.
3.This will open the Properties for your wireless network card. Next,simply remove the check from the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) checkbox and then choose OK .The before and after views of the dialog box can be seen in Figure 15..
Figure 15: Disabling the TCP/IP Stack Step Three
Your TCP/IP stack is now disabled and your wireless network card will not be able to connect to any network.Your WarDriving software will function perfectly even with TCP/IP disabled but you will not expose yourself to possible legal action by inadvertently connecting to a network that you discover while WarDriving. When you are ready to resume normal operations with your wireless network card, simply repeat steps one and two and then replace the checkmark in the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) checkbox and click OK.
7. WARDRIVING RULES
These are by no means rules that MUST be followed, but they are a collection of suggestions for safe, ethical, and legal stumbling.
Â¢ Do Not Connect.
Â¢ Obey traffic laws.
Â¢ Obey private property and no-trespassing signs.
Â¢ Don't use your data for personal gain.
Â¢ Be like the hiker motto of'take only pictures, leave only footprints.
Â¢ Speak intelligently to others.
Â¢ Avoid Auto Connection.
Â¢ If/When speaking to media, remember you are representing the community.
8. WAYS TO PROTECT NETWORK
1. Always apply a password for your network.
This will in most cases prevent the Wardrivers from trying to connect to your network, as it would be much easier for them to just go and find another AP else where that is open and has no protection.
There are two main types of password protection that you could use:
(i) WPA (Wireless Protocol Access)
(ii) WEP (Wireless Equivalent Privacy) This is far easier to crack than WPA, but is still
better than nothing. The best one of the two to use is WPA, as it is much harder to crack
2. Hide your SSID
This method of wireless security is not very affective at all, because if there was a wardriver, with even the most basic software, they would immediately pick up the 'hidden' network without any skill required by the user.
3. Assign a MAC address.
This type of wireless security protection is not very secure as there are ways of faking the MAC address of the Wifi card. However it is still worth applying it as yet another layer of protection. This type of network protection works by assigning the MAC address of all the wireless devices that you want to allow on to the network. Any other Wifi cards that try to connect to the network that are not on the list will be denied access.
4. Don't use your data for personal gain.
Place your wireless router as far away possible from the street outside, to limit how much the signal radiates outside. Some routers also have setting to determine how powerful the signal is sent out.
5. Turn off your network.
Turn off your network when you are not going to use it for a long period of time, ie when going on holiday or if you'll be away for a couple of days.
6. Always update wireless router software and use most secure settings.
When telling others about wardriving and wireless security, don't get sensationalistic. Horror stories and FUD are not very helpful to the acceptance of wardrivers. Speak factually and carefully, Point out problems, but also point out solutions, especially how we are not the problem because we don't connect.
7. Avoid Auto Connection.
When out wardriving, make sure that your wireless devices Auto Connection function is turned off, to avoid automatically connect to someone's network without you knowing.I recommend if you have a wireless network at your home or business, that you should take all the above precautions to try and prevent anybody from hacking into your network.The reality is, that there is no real way to have a 100% secure wireless network at this time, but if you take all of the above steps, it will deter the average wardriver as they are usually looking for easy access.
The sudden popularity of wireless networks, combined with a popular misperception that no additional steps to secure those networks are necessary, has caused a marked increase in the number of insecure computer networks that can be accessed without authorization. This in turn has given rise to the sport of wardriving detecting and reporting the existence of insecure wireless networks, ostensibly without actually accessing the network. Wardriving may also involve illegally accessing and monitoring the networks once so discovered. The sport of discovering connections to wireless computer networks can be done while driving in a car or while strolling on foot with a PDA When a network is identified, the Hotspot access point(AP) can be marked with a coded symbol in chalk on a wall or sidewalk, or war chalked. This will alert others to the presence of an open or insecure wireless network in a given location which they might choose to access themselves. Other variations include war stumbling (accidental discovery of an open access point).
Most hackers or wardriving hobbyists use freeware tools such as NetStumbler, or Kismet.These software programs can be used for the wholly legitimate purpose of helping network administrators make their systems more secure. They work by detecting the service set identifier (SSID) number that wireless networks continuously broadcast to identify themselves to their authorized users. Unfortunately, unless steps are taken by the wireless network operator to restrict what and to whom the network broadcasts as part of this process of signaling to users, then unauthorized users can also discover the existence of the network. In that event, drive-by snoopers and casual passersby alike will not only be able to detect the network, but will be able to access network resources unless some system is in place to restrict network access, such as requiring a user ID and password to log on to the system.
Information gathered in this manner can be correlated with geographical information provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS) and uploaded to maps posted on the Internet showing the location of access points (AP) for Wi-Fi networks. Commercial services such as Wi-Finder provide maps of wireless networks that provide free or paid public Internet access.
10. FUTURE SCOPE
The rapid rise and evolution of networking technologies continues to have a profound impact on the assumptions underlying many aspects of law. Like the war-driving challenge legislators and courts to find solutions that protect a property owner's rights while encouraging the free flow of information. By prohibiting use of a Wi-Fi network only when the network operator has implemented security measures, courts and legislators will encourage the development and use of this valuable technology. Simultaneously, this approach will promote sensible security practices, and protect network operators who have indicated their access preferences.
1) Jeff Dunetemann's Wi-Fi Guide
2) War Driving Drive, Detect, Defend.(A Guide to Wireless Security) by Chris Hurley.
3) www. ward rive.ne't I * # * j , > ,
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. THE ORiGINSOFWARDRIVING 2
2. KWHAT IS IN A NAME 2
2.2. THE TERMINOLOGY HISTORY OF WAR DRIVING 2
2.3. WAR DRIVING MISCONCEPTIONS 3
3. THE TRUTH ABOUT WAR DRIVING 6
4. TOOLS OF THE TRADE OR "WHAT DO I NEED" 7
4.1. GETTING THE HARDWARE 7
4.1.1. THE LAPTOP SETUP 7
4.1.2. THE PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT SETUP 8
4.2. CHOOSING A WIRELESS NERTWORK CARD 10
4.3. DECIDING ON AN EXTERNAL ANTENNA 12
4.3.1. OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA 14
4.3.2. DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA 16
5. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM 18
6. DISABLING THE TCP/IP STACK IN WINDOWS 20
7. WAR DRIVING RULES 22
8. WAY TO PROTECT NETWORK 23
9. CONCLUSION 25
10. FUTURE SCOPE 26
11. REFERENCES 27